Under the Regulation on wholesale Energy Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT), the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) has developed a Guidance. The document, although it is legally non-binding, provides important insights in what is considered abusive, also in the sense of market manipulation. There are various types of market manipulation, being classified in categories of abuse. The abusive behaviours are quite diverse, including physical withholding, a typical activity not applicable to markets where equity or bonds are traded, but physical commodities.
This series of courses consists of the following video lessons, as well as an exam: