Marking the close concerns a form of market manipulation. It concerns the manipulation of reference prices, such as settlement prices, indices or markers, which are used as reference to settle contracts, like commodity supply agreements of financial instruments, such as cash settled derivatives. Manipulation of a reference price would imply that invoicing takes place on an incorrect price reference. Analogously, positions are valuated in an incorrect way. However, regulations which prohibit market abuse in financial markets aim to protect investors, while regulations which prohibit market abuse in commodity and energy markets aim to protect consumers.
This series of courses covers the following videos: